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Writeup is a retired vulnerable VM from Hack The Box.
Let’s start with a
masscan probe to establish the open ports in the host.
# masscan -e tun0 -p1-65535,U:1-65535 10.10.10.138 --rate=1000 Starting masscan 1.0.4 (http://bit.ly/14GZzcT) at 2019-06-11 06:06:24 GMT -- forced options: -sS -Pn -n --randomize-hosts -v --send-eth Initiating SYN Stealth Scan Scanning 1 hosts [131070 ports/host] Discovered open port 80/tcp on 10.10.10.138 Discovered open port 22/tcp on 10.10.10.138
Nothing unusual with the ports. Let’s do one better with
nmap scanning the discovered ports to establish the services.
# nmap -n -v -Pn -p22,80 -A --reason -oN nmap.txt 10.10.10.138 ... PORT STATE SERVICE REASON VERSION 22/tcp open ssh syn-ack ttl 63 OpenSSH 7.4p1 Debian 10+deb9u6 (protocol 2.0) | ssh-hostkey: | 2048 dd:53:10:70:0b:d0:47:0a:e2:7e:4a:b6:42:98:23:c7 (RSA) | 256 37:2e:14:68:ae:b9:c2:34:2b:6e:d9:92:bc:bf:bd:28 (ECDSA) |_ 256 93:ea:a8:40:42:c1:a8:33:85:b3:56:00:62:1c:a0:ab (ED25519) 80/tcp open http syn-ack ttl 63 Apache httpd 2.4.25 ((Debian)) | http-methods: |_ Supported Methods: OPTIONS HEAD GET POST | http-robots.txt: 1 disallowed entry |_/writeup/ |_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.25 (Debian) |_http-title: Nothing here yet.
Hmm. There’s an entry in
robots.txt, calling me to check it out. Here’s how it looks like.
CMS Made Simple
If you check out the HTML source of
/writeup, you’ll see that CMS Made Simple was used.
And because this box is pretty new, you have to look for a relatively new exploit as well. For that, look no further than EDB-ID 46635. Running the exploit is pretty self-explanatory.
Once that’s done, we can go ahead and recover the password from the salted MD5 hash with John the Ripper.
# cat hash.txt 62def4866937f08cc13bab43bb14e6f7$5a599ef579066807
According to the exploit, the hash format is
# john --list=subformats ... UserFormat = dynamic_1017 type = dynamic_1017: md5($s.$p) (long salt) ...
It was super quick!
Perhaps the credential (
jkr:raykayjay9) is meant for SSH? Well, there’s only one way to find out.
Baam. Straight to
During enumeration of
jkr's account, I noticed that it’s in the
staff group, which is pretty unusual. Check out what the
staff group can do.
This means that
jkr as a member of
staff, can write stuff to
/usr/local/sbin! Now, I just need something to execute stuff from these two directories. Enter
See what happens when I log in.
Classic search path hijacking. Armed with this knowledge, we can create the following “fake”
It creates a
.ssh directory in
/root if it doesn’t exist and then
echo a SSH public key I control to
authorized_keys. Lastly, we simply pass all the original options and arguments to the real
Let's test this concept.
root.txt is trivial.